Heater. Save up to 25% energy
by using the ceramic-waterbed-heating system
exchange of waterbed heater without pumping out the water!
knows that energy costs increase every day. In particular within
the European countries like Germany or the Netherlands. Qiaomenglai
offers the world-wide most economical
waterbed heaters, which
you can find. and another advantage: waterbed-heaters. They are
more durable than traditional waterbed-heaters. You have 5 years
unlimited warranty on every offered waterbed heating system.
now on the basis of a sample. You will be inspired!
more about our heating systems:
E-Saver CE analog
Waterbed-Heater: E-Saver CE with remote controll
Waterbed-Heater: E-Saver CA
Waterbed-Heater: E-Saver CA digital
the following text you can read how high the costs for heating
a waterbed with a traditional heating system can be. But if you
buy your heating systems from Qiaomenglai, you can save
opposite to traditional
american or european waterbed-heaters.
Text copy has been published on homeenergy.org:
written by Ted Rieger
Ted Rieger is a freelance writer who specializes in energy topics.
He lives in Sacramento, California.
Heating: Uncovering Energy Savings in the Bedroom
can easily put refrigerators to shame in a kWh-guzzling contest
and nearly one of every six homes has one. Some utilities
are now targeting them in their energy conservation programs.
crest of the wave of waterbed sales may have passed, but energy
consumption by waterbed heaters still accounts for
portion of energy costs in some households, in some cases for consumers
who can least afford this ongoing cost. Some utilities are discovering
that waterbed heating can be cost-effectively targeted for significant
energy savings as part of demand-side management and weatherization
Industry statistics show that domestic sales of all types of waterbeds
have declined annually from a 1988 peak of 3.8 million wholesale
units to 2.5 million wholesale units sold in 1992. During this
same period, the number of manufacturers of "flotation products" sold
in the United States declined from 326 to 158. The Waterbed Council,
Inc., an industry trade association, says that 18% of all beds
sold in the United States today are waterbeds, with soft-sided
making up nearly 20% of all waterbed sales. Statistics on total
market penetration vary by source, with an estimated 15%-20% of
households having a waterbed.
Improvements and options in waterbeds have reduced energy use since
the full flotation models were introduced during the 1960s. Mattresses
are available that require less water than before, such as shallow-fill
or mid-fill models. The hybrid, or soft-sided beds, which look like
innerspring mattresses, are more energy-efficient because of the
insulating effect of the soft sides. Reduced-motion or waveless models,
which have fiber inserts within the mattress chamber, also help reduce
heat loss by reducing water movement.
Many variables affect waterbed energy consumption: the climate where
the bed owner lives; the size of the bed (king, queen, or super single);
the type of bed (traditional hard frame with full flotation mattress,
or soft-sided beds); the type of heater used; add-on energy saving
measures (fitted mattress pads, foam pads on top of the mattress,
use of quilts and comforters); user behavior (making the bed when
not in use); and the user's temperature comfort level.
When it comes to waterbed heaters and thermostats, consumers really
have few options to choose from. According to Debb Beatty-Bovett,
marketing director for Aqua Queen, a heater manufacturer, only three
companies worldwide manufacture waterbed heaters, although their
products are sold under a number of brand names. Beatty-Bovett says
waterbed heating systems are subject to tight UL guidelines for approval.
Heaters come in three wattages--150, 330, and 380. Manufacturers'
guidelines should be followed in matching the heater to the bed based
primarily on the fill-depth of the mattress. Some shallow-fill soft-sided
beds may not even need a heater. Shallow-fill to mid-fill mattresses
(up to 6 inches in depth) may use 150-W heaters. Beds with dual mattresses
are available that allow sleeping partners to individually adjust
mattress firmness and temperature. These use two, individual 150-W
heaters, one for each mattress, with a thermal divider between mattresses.
The heater consists of a heating pad--the circuitry of a heating
element encased in vinyl--placed on the bed frame under the water-filled
mattress. Beatty-Bovett says efficiency is largely based on how much
of the pad the circuitry covers. Heater pads can be all vinyl, or
may have a rigid aluminum back which may help reflect heat into the
mattress instead of losing it to the bed frame, according to some
The heater has
a thermostatic control with a temperature range of 70deg.F-100deg.F.
Thermostats do not necessarily correspond to actual
mattress water temperature, but temperature gauges can be added for
more accurate readings. Bulb and capillary controls are the standard "mechanical" types
of temperature controllers. Manufacturers claim that higher-priced
solid-state models are more efficient for control of temperature
and energy usage.
and comfort levels also affect energy use. A nationwide survey, "Waterbeds and the Consumer," conducted in 1984
for the Waterbed Manufacturers Association stated, "At least
two out of every three waterbed owners feel that because a waterbed
is heated, it saves on the cost of heating homes since the thermostat
can be turned down." This perception may not always produce
energy savings, because of other factors such as the room where the
bed is located, the comparative efficiencies between the space-heating
and waterbed-heating systems, the type of bed, and the user's comfort
Some people use
waterbeds for health and comfort reasons associated with "heated sleep," in
addition to flotation benefits, and for them these features outweigh
the energy costs. Users adjust
heater thermostats to make the mattress comfortable to skin temperature
and their own thermal comfort. Beatty-Bovett recommends that a mattress
be heated to a minimum of 76deg.F at all times. The American Sleep
Research Institute says thermal comfort for most people is in the
range of 84deg.F-95deg.F. In some climates, users may turn down the
thermostat setting during summer months, but Beatty-Bovett claims
the heater should never be turned off, because it is necessary to
ensure minimum temperature for comfort and to prevent mold growth.
Energy Consumption Tests
and testing of waterbed energy consumption is not extensive, nor
is data from available tests comprehensive or conclusive.
A 1982 study by the California Department of Consumer Affairs (see "Waterbeds:
the Silent Guzzlers," HE Jan/Feb '88, p.29) which is still cited
by energy professionals, calculated an average usage of 125 kWh per
month (1,500 kWh per year) for its baseline case--a king-size bed
(with a quilted mattress pad, two sheets, and a comforter) heated
to 90deg.F in a 70deg.F room.
In a study of miscellaneous residential electrical energy use (published
in the Proceedings of the 1990 ACEEE Summer Study on Efficiency in
Buildings), researchers with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory concluded
that waterbed energy use is highly seasonal, with up to a factor
of five difference between the coldest and warmest months. Their
literature review found that waterbeds use 500-2,000 kWh per year.
In studies by Central Maine Power and Southern California Edison,
a waterbed's load shape was found to be unfavorable to most utilities,
because peak usage occured in the morning, begining at about 7 a.m.,
and didn't fall significantly until afternoon (see Figure 1). This
load shape suggests owners tend to leave the covers off their waterbed
once they get up, and don't make their beds until later in the day.
A 1987 study by an independent lab comparing an Aqua Queen Mark
4 heater with a Thermafoil heater was conducted with two queen-size
wood-frame beds placed side-by-side and made up with an insulator
pad, a waterbed sheet, and a comforter, with the beds heated to 90deg.F.
The beds were in a draft-free room, but no attempt was made to control
ambient room temperature. Power consumption was monitored for 15
days in March and April, with daily kWh readings taken at midnight.
The daily averages were 2.9 kWh for the Aqua Queen and 3.9 kWh for
the Thermafoil. Extrapolating these averages gives respective average
monthly consumptions of 87 kWh and 117 kWh, and annual consumptions
of 1,044 kWh and 1,404 kWh. Neither of these tests accounted for
seasonal variations in room temperature over the course of a year,
however, and neither included the effects of people using the bed
for several hours a day, nor any other user behavior.
Utilities Target Low-Income Users
anecdotal evidence suggests a trend in waterbed purchase and ownership
among lower-income people. The initial cost
of new waterbeds make them affordable to lower-income people, when
compared with innerspring beds of similar size. For these consumers,
the benefit of "heated sleep" is not necessarily the main
motivation for purchase.
that target low-income households for demand-side management or
weatherization programs based on billing data have
found even higher percentages of such households with waterbeds.
Waterbed Council statistics show that 20% of waterbed purchases are
by people with incomes under $20,000. Jeff Newburn, senior marketing
planner with Midwest Power in Des Moines, Iowa stated at this year's
Affordable Comfort Conference, "Studies have shown that one-quarter
to one-half of Iowa low-income households have waterbeds." According
to Newburn, "Waterbeds tend to be less expensive to buy, so
they give you a low first cost, but you have an ongoing cost for
energy to run the heater."
Newburn says that Midwest Power began installing foam mattress pads
this year on waterbeds to insulate and save energy, as part of the
utility's direct-install programs for all customers. The foam pads
are also being used this year for low-income weatherization programs
in Iowa administered by community action agencies.
The foam pads
have "egg carton" contours on one side and
are flat on the other, with a base thickness of 1/2" and a 13/4" peak
height. They are placed directly on the waterbed mattress under the
regular mattress pad and sheets. The pads come in king, queen, and
single sizes, and can be purchased at some discount department stores
as well as through some energy-efficient product suppliers. Newburn
says the utility is assuming an installed cost of $30 per pad, and
preliminary indications show payback in as little as 5 months.
Newburn says the pads were voluntarily tested on waterbeds during
the '93-'94 winter by 79 utility employees and contractors, including
himself. Pre-installation metering of 8 participants carried out
for one month during the winter, showed an average waterbed-energy
use of 3.5 kWh/day. Post-installation metering is incomplete, but
in a survey of 72 participants, 45% said they turned the waterbed
heater off for the winter and 55% said they turned the heater thermostat
down. Additionally, 76% said the foam pad also made the bed more
comfortable to sleep on.
In Ohio, waterbeds were targeted as part of a low-income demand-side
management program in 1992 for Columbus Southern Power customers
through a contract with the Corporation for Ohio Appalachian Development
(COAD). This program included weatherization measures, heating/cooling
system tuneups, electric water heater and appliance repairs and measures,
lighting measures, and consumer education. The program served 931
households and waterbed mattress foam pads were installed on 279
waterbeds in 223 households. In the early stages of the project,
waterbed energy consumption was metered before installing the foam
pads. It soon became apparent that pad installation would always
be effective, so consumer education was provided and pads were installed
by an inspector in every case.
The foam pads
were similar in appearance and function to those used in Iowa.
COAD determined cost-effectiveness based on a $20 cost per
pad with a three-year life span. According to COAD's Bob Pitts, "Savings
are generated not only because of the insulating value of the foam
pad, but also because it allows the mattress thermostat to be turned
down as soon as it goes on, without a reduction in the bed's comfort
level." Although COAD's metering was not a random or extensive
sampling, and is not considered scientific or conclusive by Pitts,
pre-pad metering of 55 beds indicated an average annual metered use
of 1,636 kWh. Pitts estimated the pads produced an average annual
energy savings of 60%, and that the worst-case scenario would yield
annual savings of at least 800 kWh.
Duquesne Light Co. in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, took a different
approach in a 1992 low-income pilot program for non-electric-heating
customers selected based on electrical usage. Duquesne offered a
complete mattress changeout to a standard foam mattress, eliminating
the total waterbed energy load. Of 185 program participants, 78 owned
waterbeds (42%), but only 34 agreed to the mattress replacement,
which was also tied to a refrigerator replacement and/or lighting
efficiency measures. Those who refused the mattress changeout cited
health reasons or a preference for the waterbed, and a few said the
waterbed was used as a heating device in rooms that were unheated.
Of the mattresses replaced, 50% were king size, 35% were queen, and
15% were super singles.
Energy usage data for the program was drawn from customer billing
for one year before and one year after installation of measures.
Specific data on waterbed energy savings could not be isolated, since
other measures occurred with the mattress changeout, but engineering
estimates indicated that households with mattress changeouts saved
an average of 1,300 kWh annually, from this measure alone. The utility
concluded that the program and each category of installed measure
was cost-effective, based on a seven-year payback criterion established
by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission.
we manufacture the Waterbeds
in China, we can offer you cheap prices
for every article made of vinyl or
We are cheaper than some other waterbed factories in China or whole
Asia, but we surely are not the cheapest waterbed manufacturer
try to do works like welding and cutting of the vinyl the best
as we can and we have a long time knowledge in manufacturing waterbeds.
can manufacture waterbeds with the most durable foils produced
by BAYER AG from Germany.